Generation of Whole-Genome Sequencing Data for Comparing Primary and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

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Generation of Whole-Genome Sequencing Data for Comparing Primary and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

Genomics Inform. 2018 Sep;16(3):71-74

Authors: Park JL, Kim SK, Kim JH, Yun SJ, Kim WJ, Kim WT, Jeong P, Kang HW, Kim SY

Abstract
Because castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) does not respond to androgen deprivation therapy and has a very poor prognosis, it is critical to identify a prognostic indicator for predicting high-risk patients who will develop CRPC. Here, we report a dataset of whole genomes from four pairs of primary prostate cancer (PC) and CRPC samples. The analysis of the paired PC and CRPC samples in the whole-genome data showed that the average number of somatic mutations per patients was 7,927 in CRPC tissues compared with primary PC tissues (range, 1,691 to 21,705). Our whole-genome sequencing data of primary PC and CRPC may be useful for understanding the genomic changes and molecular mechanisms that occur during the progression from PC to CRPC.

PMID: 30309206 [PubMed]

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SvABA: genome-wide detection of structural variants and indels by local assembly.

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SvABA: genome-wide detection of structural variants and indels by local assembly.

Genome Res. 2018 04;28(4):581-591

Authors: Wala JA, Bandopadhayay P, Greenwald NF, O’Rourke R, Sharpe T, Stewart C, Schumacher S, Li Y, Weischenfeldt J, Yao X, Nusbaum C, Campbell P, Getz G, Meyerson M, Zhang CZ, Imielinski M, Beroukhim R

Abstract
Structural variants (SVs), including small insertion and deletion variants (indels), are challenging to detect through standard alignment-based variant calling methods. Sequence assembly offers a powerful approach to identifying SVs, but is difficult to apply at scale genome-wide for SV detection due to its computational complexity and the difficulty of extracting SVs from assembly contigs. We describe SvABA, an efficient and accurate method for detecting SVs from short-read sequencing data using genome-wide local assembly with low memory and computing requirements. We evaluated SvABA’s performance on the NA12878 human genome and in simulated and real cancer genomes. SvABA demonstrates superior sensitivity and specificity across a large spectrum of SVs and substantially improves detection performance for variants in the 20-300 bp range, compared with existing methods. SvABA also identifies complex somatic rearrangements with chains of short (<1000 bp) templated-sequence insertions copied from distant genomic regions. We applied SvABA to 344 cancer genomes from 11 cancer types and found that short templated-sequence insertions occur in ∼4% of all somatic rearrangements. Finally, we demonstrate that SvABA can identify sites of viral integration and cancer driver alterations containing medium-sized (50-300 bp) SVs.

PMID: 29535149 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Institutional implementation of clinical tumor profiling on an unselected cancer population.

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Institutional implementation of clinical tumor profiling on an unselected cancer population.

JCI Insight. 2016 11 17;1(19):e87062

Authors: Sholl LM, Do K, Shivdasani P, Cerami E, Dubuc AM, Kuo FC, Garcia EP, Jia Y, Davineni P, Abo RP, Pugh TJ, van Hummelen P, Thorner AR, Ducar M, Berger AH, Nishino M, Janeway KA, Church A, Harris M, Ritterhouse LL, Campbell JD, Rojas-Rudilla V, Ligon AH, Ramkissoon S, Cleary JM, Matulonis U, Oxnard GR, Chao R, Tassell V, Christensen J, Hahn WC, Kantoff PW, Kwiatkowski DJ, Johnson BE, Meyerson M, Garraway LA, Shapiro GI, Rollins BJ, Lindeman NI, MacConaill LE

Abstract
BACKGROUND. Comprehensive genomic profiling of a patient’s cancer can be used to diagnose, monitor, and recommend treatment. Clinical implementation of tumor profiling in an enterprise-wide, unselected cancer patient population has yet to be reported. METHODS. We deployed a hybrid-capture and massively parallel sequencing assay (OncoPanel) for all adult and pediatric patients at our combined cancer centers. Results were categorized by pathologists based on actionability. We report the results for the first 3,727 patients tested. RESULTS. Our cohort consists of cancer patients unrestricted by disease site or stage. Across all consented patients, half had sufficient and available (>20% tumor) material for profiling; once specimens were received in the laboratory for pathology review, 73% were scored as adequate for genomic testing. When sufficient DNA was obtained, OncoPanel yielded a result in 96% of cases. 73% of patients harbored an actionable or informative alteration; only 19% of these represented a current standard of care for therapeutic stratification. The findings recapitulate those of previous studies of common cancers but also identify alterations, including in AXL and EGFR, associated with response to targeted therapies. In rare cancers, potentially actionable alterations suggest the utility of a “cancer-agnostic” approach in genomic profiling. Retrospective analyses uncovered contextual genomic features that may inform therapeutic response and examples where diagnoses revised by genomic profiling markedly changed clinical management. CONCLUSIONS. Broad sequencing-based testing deployed across an unselected cancer cohort is feasible. Genomic results may alter management in diverse scenarios; however, additional barriers must be overcome to enable precision cancer medicine on a large scale. FUNDING. This work was supported by DFCI, BWH, and the National Cancer Institute (5R33CA155554 and 5K23CA157631).

PMID: 27882345 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Current and Emerging Reconstituted HDL-apoA-I and HDL-apoE Approaches to Treat Atherosclerosis.

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Current and Emerging Reconstituted HDL-apoA-I and HDL-apoE Approaches to Treat Atherosclerosis.

J Pers Med. 2018 Oct 03;8(4):

Authors: Valanti EK, Dalakoura-Karagkouni K, Sanoudou D

Abstract
Atherosclerosis affects millions of people worldwide. However, the wide variety of limitations in the current therapeutic options leaves much to be desired in future lipid-lowering therapies. For example, although statins, which are the first-line treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD), reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a large percentage of patients, they lead to optimal levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in only about one-third of patients. A new promising research direction against atherosclerosis aims to improve lipoprotein metabolism. Novel therapeutic approaches are being developed to increase the levels of functional high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. This review aims to highlight the atheroprotective potential of the in vitro synthesized reconstituted HDL particles containing apolipoprotein E (apoE) as their sole apolipoprotein component (rHDL-apoE). For this purpose, we provide: (1) a summary of the atheroprotective properties of native plasma HDL and its apolipoprotein components, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoE; (2) an overview of the anti-atherogenic functions of rHDL-apoA-I and apoA-I-containing HDL, i.e., natural HDL isolated from transgenic Apoa1-/- × Apoe-/- mice overexpressing human apoA-I (HDL-apoA-I); and (3) the latest developments and therapeutic potential of HDL-apoE and rHDL-apoE. Novel rHDL formulations containing apoE could possibly present enhanced biological functions, leading to improved therapeutic efficacy against atherosclerosis.

PMID: 30282955 [PubMed]

View More Current and Emerging Reconstituted HDL-apoA-I and HDL-apoE Approaches to Treat Atherosclerosis.

Exosome-transmitted long non-coding RNA PTENP1 suppresses bladder cancer progression.

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Exosome-transmitted long non-coding RNA PTENP1 suppresses bladder cancer progression.

Mol Cancer. 2018 Oct 03;17(1):143

Authors: Zheng R, Du M, Wang X, Xu W, Liang J, Wang W, Lv Q, Qin C, Chu H, Wang M, Yuan L, Qian J, Zhang Z

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Extracellular communication within the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor progression. Although exosomes can package into long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to mediate extracellular communication, the role of exosomal lncRNA PTENP1 in bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear.
METHOD: We detected PTENP1 expression between patients with BC and healthy controls; the expression occurred in tissues and exosomes from plasma. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and the area under curve (AUC). Cell phenotypes and animal experiments were performed to determine the effect of exosomal PTENP1.
RESULTS: PTENP1 was significantly reduced in BC tissues and in exosomes from plasma of patients with BC (P < 0.05). We found that PTENP1 was mainly wrapped by exosomes. Exosomal PTENP1 could distinguish patients with BC from healthy controls (AUC = 0.743; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.645-0.840). Normal cells secreted exosomal PTENP1 and transmitted it to BC cells, thus inhibiting the biological malignant behavior of BC cells by increasing cell apoptosis and reducing the ability to invade and migrate (P < 0.05). Exosomal PTENP1 could suppress tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, exosomal PTENP1 mediated the expression of PTEN by competitively binding to microRNA-17.
CONCLUSION: Exosomal PTENP1 is a promising novel biomarker that can be used for the clinical detection of BC. Exosomes derived from normal cells transfer PTENP1 to BC cells, which reduce the progression of BC both in vitro and in vivo and suggest that exosomal PTENP1 participates in normal-cell-to-bladder-cell communication during the carcinogenesis of BC.

PMID: 30285771 [PubMed – in process]

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The triennial International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC).

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The triennial International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC).

J Transl Med. 2018 Oct 03;16(1):252

Authors: Box NF, Larue L, Manga P, Montoliu L, Spritz RA, Filipp FV

Abstract
The International Federation of Pigment Cell Societies (IFPCS) held its XXIII triennial International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC) in Denver, Colorado in August 2017. The goal of the summit was to provide a venue promoting a vibrant interchange among leading basic and clinical researchers working on leading-edge aspects of melanocyte biology and disease. The philosophy of the meeting, entitled Breakthroughs in Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research, was to deliver a comprehensive program in an inclusive environment fostering scientific exchange and building new academic bridges. This document provides an outlook on the history, accomplishments, and sustainability of the pigment cell and melanoma research community. Shared progress in the understanding of cellular homeostasis of pigment cells but also clinical successes and hurdles in the treatment of melanoma and dermatological disorders continue to drive future research activities. A sustainable direction of the societies creates an international forum identifying key areas of imminent needs in laboratory research and clinical care and ensures the future of this vibrant, diverse and unique research community at the same time. Important advances showcase wealth and breadth of the field in melanocyte and melanoma research and include emerging frontiers in melanoma immunotherapy, medical and surgical oncology, dermatology, vitiligo, albinism, genomics and systems biology, precision bench-to-bedside approaches, epidemiology, pigment biophysics and chemistry, and evolution. This report recapitulates highlights of the federate meeting agenda designed to advance clinical and basic research frontiers from melanoma and dermatological sciences followed by a historical perspective of the associated societies and conferences.

PMID: 30285864 [PubMed – in process]

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Differential expression of hemoglobin receptor, HmbR, between carriage and invasive isolates of Neisseria meningitidis contributes to virulence: lessons from a clonal outbreak.

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Differential expression of hemoglobin receptor, HmbR, between carriage and invasive isolates of Neisseria meningitidis contributes to virulence: lessons from a clonal outbreak.

Virulence. 2018 12 31;9(1):923-929

Authors: Sevestre J, Diene SM, Aouiti-Trabelsi M, Deghmane AE, Tournier I, François P, Caron F, Taha MK

Abstract
Carriage and invasion balance in the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis was analyzed during a recent clonal outbreak of meningococcal B in Normandy, France, that offered the opportunity to compare six isolates undistinguable by conventional typing (B:14:P1.7,16:F3-3/ST-32) isolated from invasive disease or pharyngeal asymptomatic carriage. Data from animal model (transgenic mice rendered susceptible to N. meningitidis infection) showed an absence of virulence for two non-capsulated carriage isolates, an intermediate virulence for two capsulated carriage isolates and a marked virulence for two capsulated invasive isolates. This differential pathogenesis well correlated with whole genome sequencing analysis that clustered both isolates of each group together, forming their own arm within the Norman cluster. Gene-by-gene analysis specified that genes involved in iron acquisition were among the elements differentially represented in cluster of invasive isolates compared to cluster of capsulated carriage isolates. The hemoglobin receptor encoding gene hmbR was in an ON-phase in the capsulated invasive isolates while carriage capsulated isolates were in an OFF-phase. An ON-phase variant of a capsulated carriage isolate showed enhanced virulence. These data underline the role of phase variation (ON/OFF) of HmbR in the balance between disease isolates/carriage isolates.

PMID: 29638173 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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High participation rate among 25 721 patients with broad age range in a hospital-based research project involving whole-genome sequencing – the Lausanne Institutional Biobank.

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High participation rate among 25 721 patients with broad age range in a hospital-based research project involving whole-genome sequencing – the Lausanne Institutional Biobank.

Swiss Med Wkly. 2017;147:w14528

Authors: Bochud M, Currat C, Chapatte L, Roth C, Mooser V

Abstract
AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the interest of adult inpatients and selected outpatients in engaging in a large, real-life, hospital-based, genomic medicine research project and in receiving clinically actionable incidental findings.
METHODS: Within the framework of the cross-sectional Institutional Biobank of Lausanne, Switzerland, a total of 25721 patients of the CHUV University Hospital were systematically invited to grant researchers access to their biomedical data and to donate blood for future analyses, including whole-genome sequencing. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify personal factors, including age, gender, religion, ethnicity, citizenship, education level and mode of admission, associated with willingness to participate in this genomic research project and with interest in receiving clinically actionable incidental findings.
RESULTS: The overall participation rate was 79% (20343/25721). Participation rate declined progressively with age, averaging 83%, 75%, 67% and 62% in patients aged <64 years (n = 13108), ≥64 years (n = 12613), ≥80 years (n = 4557) and ≥90 years (n = 1050), respectively. Factors associated with participation substantially differed between age strata. Patients less likely to participate included women (odds ratio 0.86, [95% confidence interval 0.79-0.95] and 0.78 [0.71-0.85] before and after age 64, respectively), non-Swiss (0.81 [0.74-0.90] and 0.58 [0.52-0.65]) and those admitted through the emergency ward (0.88 [0.79-0.98] and 0.66 [0.60-0.73]). Religion and marital status were associated with participation among patients aged <64 years. A total of 19 018 (93%) participants were willing to be re-contacted for incidental findings. A high education level was associated with higher participation rate, but not with higher willingness to receive incidental findings within the population who had agreed to participate.
CONCLUSION: A large proportion of adult patients, even among the elderly, are willing to actively participate and receive incidental findings in this systematic hospital-based precision and genomic medicine research program with broad consent.

PMID: 29063527 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

View More High participation rate among 25 721 patients with broad age range in a hospital-based research project involving whole-genome sequencing – the Lausanne Institutional Biobank.

PLATO software provides analytic framework for investigating complexity beyond genome-wide association studies.

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PLATO software provides analytic framework for investigating complexity beyond genome-wide association studies.

Nat Commun. 2017 10 27;8(1):1167

Authors: Hall MA, Wallace J, Lucas A, Kim D, Basile AO, Verma SS, McCarty CA, Brilliant MH, Peissig PL, Kitchner TE, Verma A, Pendergrass SA, Dudek SM, Moore JH, Ritchie MD

Abstract
Genome-wide, imputed, sequence, and structural data are now available for exceedingly large sample sizes. The needs for data management, handling population structure and related samples, and performing associations have largely been met. However, the infrastructure to support analyses involving complexity beyond genome-wide association studies is not standardized or centralized. We provide the PLatform for the Analysis, Translation, and Organization of large-scale data (PLATO), a software tool equipped to handle multi-omic data for hundreds of thousands of samples to explore complexity using genetic interactions, environment-wide association studies and gene-environment interactions, phenome-wide association studies, as well as copy number and rare variant analyses. Using the data from the Marshfield Personalized Medicine Research Project, a site in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network, we apply each feature of PLATO to type 2 diabetes and demonstrate how PLATO can be used to uncover the complex etiology of common traits.

PMID: 29079728 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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