Endometrial cancer gene panels: clinical diagnostic vs research germline DNA testing.

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Endometrial cancer gene panels: clinical diagnostic vs research germline DNA testing.

Mod Pathol. 2017 08;30(8):1048-1068

Authors: Spurdle AB, Bowman MA, Shamsani J, Kirk J

Abstract
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer, but is nevertheless uncommon enough to have value as a signature cancer for some hereditary cancer syndromes. Commercial multigene testing panels include up to 13 different genes annotated for germline DNA testing of patients with endometrial cancer. Many other genes have been reported as relevant to familial endometrial cancer from directed genome-wide sequencing studies or multigene panel testing, or research. This review assesses the evidence supporting association with endometrial cancer risk for 32 genes implicated in hereditary endometrial cancer, and presents a summary of rare germline variants in these 32 genes detected by analysis of quasi-population-based endometrial cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. This comprehensive investigation has led to the conclusion that convincing evidence currently exists to support clinical testing of only six of these genes for diagnosis of hereditary endometrial cancer. Testing of endometrial cancer patients for the remaining genes should be considered in the context of research studies, as a means to better establish the level of endometrial cancer risk, if any, associated with genetic variants that are deleterious to gene or protein function. It is acknowledged that clinical testing of endometrial cancer patients for several genes included on commercial panels may provide actionable findings in relation to risk of other cancers, but these should be considered secondary or incidental findings and not conclusive evidence for diagnosis of inherited endometrial cancer. In summary, this review and analysis provides a comprehensive report of current evidence to guide the selection of genes for clinical and research gene testing of germline DNA from endometrial cancer patients.

PMID: 28452373 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]