Gut microbiota density influences host physiology and is shaped by host and microbial factors.

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Gut microbiota density influences host physiology and is shaped by host and microbial factors.

Elife. 2019 01 22;8:

Authors: Contijoch EJ, Britton GJ, Yang C, Mogno I, Li Z, Ng R, Llewellyn SR, Hira S, Johnson C, Rabinowitz KM, Barkan R, Dotan I, Hirten RP, Fu SC, Luo Y, Yang N, Luong T, Labrias PR, Lira S, Peter I, Grinspan A, Clemente JC, Kosoy R, Kim-Schulze S, Qin X, Castillo A, Hurley A, Atreja A, Rogers J, Fasihuddin F, Saliaj M, Nolan A, Reyes-Mercedes P, Rodriguez C, Aly S, Santa-Cruz K, Peters L, Suárez-Fariñas M, Huang R, Hao K, Zhu J, Zhang B, Losic B, Irizar H, Song WM, Di Narzo A, Wang W, Cohen BL, DiMaio C, Greenwald D, Itzkowitz S, Lucas A, Marion J, Maser E, Ungaro R, Naymagon S, Novak J, Shah B, Ullman T, Rubin P, George J, Legnani P, Telesco SE, Friedman JR, Brodmerkel C, Plevy S, Cho JH, Colombel JF, Schadt EE, Argmann C, Dubinsky M, Kasarskis A, Sands B, Faith JJ

Abstract
To identify factors that regulate gut microbiota density and the impact of varied microbiota density on health, we assayed this fundamental ecosystem property in fecal samples across mammals, human disease, and therapeutic interventions. Physiologic features of the host (carrying capacity) and the fitness of the gut microbiota shape microbiota density. Therapeutic manipulation of microbiota density in mice altered host metabolic and immune homeostasis. In humans, gut microbiota density was reduced in Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The gut microbiota in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection had lower density and reduced fitness that were restored by fecal microbiota transplantation. Understanding the interplay between microbiota and disease in terms of microbiota density, host carrying capacity, and microbiota fitness provide new insights into microbiome structure and microbiome targeted therapeutics.
Editorial note: This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor’s assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).

PMID: 30666957 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]